Selected Publications

Please note that publications that are primarily for the EcoLEARN Projects can also be found at this link. (Some EcoLEARN papers that also relate to CLiC Lab work are included below.): http://ecolearn.gse.harvard.edu/publications.php

Grotzer, T.A., Kamarainen, A., Metcalf, S., Tutwiler, M.S. & Dede, C. (2017, April). Teaching the systems aspects of epistemologically authentic experimentation in ecosystems through immersive virtual worlds. Presented at the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST), San Antonio, Texas.  Paper Link  Poster Link

Grotzer, T.A., Solis, S.L., & Derbiszewska, K. (2017). Leveraging fourth and sixth graders’ experiences to reveal understanding of the forms and features of distributed causality. Cognition and Instruction 26(1), 1-47.

Grotzer, T.A., Solis, S.L., Tutwiler, M.S., & Powell, M.M. (2016). A study of students’ reasoning about probabilistic causality: Implications for understanding complex systems and designing instructional support. Instructional Science. doi:10.1007/s11251-016-9389-6,  Available on-line: Link

Solis, S.L. & Grotzer, T.A. (2016). They work together to roar: Kindergarteners’ understanding of an interactive causal task. Journal of Research in Childhood Education. 30(3), 422-439, Available: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02568543.2016.1178196.

Grotzer, T.A. & Solis, S.L. (2016). Curating experience: The role of learner agency in museums and schools and the development of adaptive expertise. In D. Sobel & J. Jipson (Eds.) Relating research and practice: Cognitive development in museum settings. New York: Psychology Press.

Grotzer, T.A. (2016, June). EcoXPT: Learning about ecosystems science and complex causality through experimentation in a virtual world. Poster Presentation, National Science Foundation PI Meeting, Washington DC. [Poster PDF]

Solis, L.S., Grotzer, T.A., Powell, M.M., Tutwiler, M. & Duhaylongsod, L. (April, 2016). Characterizing shifts in students’ reasoning about probabilistic causality: A microgenetic study. American Educational Research Association (AERA) Conference, Washington D.C.[PDF]

Solis, S. L., Grotzer, T.A., Curtis, K.N., Sese, R.G. & Chen, E. Y. (April, 2016). “There Must be a Cat Nearby”:  Kindergarteners’ Reasoning about Action at an Attentional Distance, American Educational Research Association (AERA) Conference, Washington D.C.[PDF]

Grotzer, T.A., Tutwiler, M.S. Kamarainen, A.M.,. Derbiszewska K.M, Metcalf, S.J., &  Dede, C.J. (2016, April) Students’ Reasoning Tendencies about the Causal Dynamics of Ecosystems and the Impacts of MUVE vs. Non-MUVE Instructional Contexts, The Next Phase of Research in Complex Systems in Science Education, American Educational Research Association (AERA) Conference, Washington D.C. [Paper PDF] [Poster PDF]

Metcalf, S.J., Kamarainen, A., Thompson, M., Sedney, P., Grotzer, T., Dede, C. (2016, April). Ecosystem science learning through simulated experimentation within an immersive virtual environment, American Educational Research Association (AERA) Conference, Washington D.C.

Donaldson Gramling, M., Solis, S.L. & Grotzer, T.A. (April, 2016). Testing a curriculum designed to build students’ understanding of distributed causality. National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST), Baltimore, MD.

Tutwiler, M.S., Grotzer, T.A., Thompson, M., Kamerainen, A., Metcalf, S., Dede, C. (2016, April). Validation of an instrument measuring student complex causal assumptions. National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Conference, Baltimore, MD. [Poster PDF]

Grotzer, T.A. & Solis, S.L. (2015). Action at an attentional distance: A study of children’s reasoning about causes and effects involving spatial and attentional discontinuity. Journal for Research in Science Teaching, 52(7) 1003-1030. Available: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/tea.21233/suppinfo

Grotzer, T.A. (2015). Causal reasoning: What is it and how does it relates to science teaching and learning? In R. Gunstone (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Science Education (pp 142-146). London: Springer Dordrecht, Heidelberg.

Powell, M.M., Tutwiler, M.S., Grotzer, T.A. Metcalf, S.J., Kamarainen, A.M., Dede, C.J. (April, 2015). The relationship between scripting and student data collection behaviors in a multi-user virtual environment. American Educational Research Association (AERA) Conference, Chicago, IL.

Donaldson Gramling, M. & Grotzer, T.A. (April, 2015). Whole-group question-asking in two classrooms during a complex causal science curricular intervention. American Educational Research Association (AERA) Conference, Chicago, IL. [PDF]

Donaldson Gramling, M., Solis, S.L. Derbiszewska, K.M., Oh, D., Tutwiler, M.S. & Grotzer, T.A. (2015, April) Testing a curriculum designed to build students’ understanding of action at an attentional distance. National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Conference, Chicago, IL. [PDF]

Powell, M.M., Grotzer, T.A. Kamarainen, A.M., & Metcalf, S.J. (2015, April).Investigating student reasoning about agency in ecosystems science.National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Conference, Chicago, IL.

Solis, S.L., & Grotzer, T.A. (2015, March). “They work together to make the sound”: Kindergarteners’ manipulations and explanations of an interactive causal task. Presented at the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) Biennial Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. 19-21 March 2015.

Grotzer, T.A., Powell, M., Derbiszewska, K.M., Courter, C.J., Kamarainen, A.M., Metcalf, S.J., & Dede, C.J. (2015). Turning Transfer Inside Out: The Affordances of Virtual Worlds and Mobile Devices in Real World Contexts for Teaching About Causality Across Time and Distance in Ecosystems. Technology, Knowledge and Learning. 20(1), 43-69. The final publication is available at Springer via http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1007/s10758-014-9241-5

Grotzer, T.A. & Tutwiler, M.S. (2014). Simplifying causal complexity: How interactions between modes of causal induction and information availability lead to heuristic driven reasoning. Mind, Brain, and Education, 8(3), 97-114.[PDF]

Tutwiler, M.S., & Grotzer, T.A. (2014, November). Shortcuts and short-circuits: Heuristics and default assumptions in Bayesian causal learning models. International Mind, Brain, and Education Society (IMBES), Fort Worth, TX.

Grotzer, T.A., Tutwiler, M.S., Solis, S.L. Derbiszewska, K.M., & Courter, C.J. (2014, April). Assessing the complexity in complex causal learning: discrete knowledge, perception, attention, and reasoning. American Educational Research Association Conference, Philadelphia, PA. April 7, 2014. [Poster PDF]

Grotzer, T.A., Kamarainen, A.M., Derbiszewska, K.M., Powell, M., Courter, C.J. Tutwiler, M.S., Metcalf, S.J., & Dede, C.J. (2014, April). Using virtual worlds and augmented reality to teach causality across time and distance in ecosystems. American Educational Research Association Conference, Philadelphia, PA. April 4, 2014. 

Courter, C.J., Grotzer, T.A., Derbiszewska, K.M., Powell, M., Tutwiler, M.S., Kamarainen, A., Metcalf, S.J., & Dede, C. A case study contrasting students’ exploration behaviors of a complex causal scenario in a virtual world: Mapping proximity and goal directed movement in EcoMUVE. Poster presented at the National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Annual International Conference, Pittsburgh, PA., March 31, 2014. 

Derbiszewska, K.M., Solis, S.L., Gramling, M.D., & Grotzer, T.A. (2014, March). Fourth and Sixth Graders Conceptions of Distributed Causality.National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST), Pittsburgh, PA., March 31, 2014.

Gramling, M.D., Solis, S.L., Derbiszewska, K.M., & Grotzer, T.A. (2014, March). Testing a curriculum for teaching action at a distance to sixth graders. National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST), Pittsburgh, PA., March 31, 2014.

Solis, S.L., Derbiszewska, K.M., & Grotzer, T.A. (2014, March). A Microgenetic Study of Students' Default Explanations of Action at an Attentional Distance. National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST), Pittsburgh, PA., March 31, 2014. 

Tutwiler, M.S., & Grotzer, T.A. (2014, March). Comparing Paths: Bayesian Sequence Analyses in a Microgenetic Study of Student Learning. National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST), Pittsburgh, PA., March 31, 2014. [Poster PDF]

Grotzer, T.A., Kamarainen, A., Tutwiler, M.S, Metcalf, S, & Dede, C. (2013). Learning to reason about ecosystems dynamics over time: The challenges of an event-based causal focus. BioScience, 63(4), 288-296.PDF of paper originally published by the American Institute of Biological Sciences and the University of California Press.

Grotzer, T.A. (2012). Learning causality in a complex world. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Education.

Grotzer, T.A., & Mittlefehdlt, S. (2012). Students' metacognitive behavior and ability to transfer causal concepts, In A. Zohar & J. Dori (Eds.) Metacognition and science education. Cambridge, MA: Springer. [PDF]

Grotzer, T.A. (2012, July). Reasoning in a complex world: Why we need a curriculum on the nature of causality. Plenary, Project Zero Summer Institute, Harvard, Cambridge, MA. July 25.

Grotzer, T.A., Kamarainen, A., Tutwiler, M.S., Metcalf, S. Dede, C. (2012, April). Learning to focus on processes and steady states in ecosystems dynamics using a virtual environment. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association (AERA) Conference, Vancouver.

Grotzer, T.A. (2012, April). Developing explicit understanding of probabilistic causation: Patterns and variation in young children’s reasoning. Paper presented at Education Policy, Leadership and Instructional Practice (EPLIP), Cambridge, MA, April 5, 2012.

Grotzer, T. A. & Tutwiler, M.S. (2012, March). Causal tensions in reasoning about ecosystem dynamics: A theoretical analysis of supportive instructional contexts. Paper presented at the National Association of Research in Science Teaching Annual Conference (NARST), Indianapolis, ID.

Grotzer, T.A. (2012, February). How the features of complex causality interact with decisions about risk. Health Communication Concentration Speaker Series, Harvard School of Public Health.

Grotzer, T.A. (2011). Public understanding of cognitive neuroscience research findings: Trying to peer beyond enchanted glass. Mind, Brain, and Education. 5(3), 108-114.

M.S. Tutwiler, Grotzer, T.A., Kamarainen, A., Metcalf, S. Dede, C. (2011, July). Exploring student understanding of complex causality in an ecosystems-based multi-user virtual environment. Conference on Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, Hong Kong July 4-8 2011

Kamarainen, A., Metcalf, S., Grotzer, T., Dede, C. (2011). EcoMUVE: Integrating visualizations into an immersive ecological multi-user virtual environment. Poster. GRC Visualization in Science and Education Conference, July, 2011.

Grotzer, T.A., Miller, R.B., Lincoln, R.A. (2011). Perceptual, attentional, and cognitive heuristics that interact with the nature of science to complicate public understanding of science, in M.S. Khine (Ed.) (pp. 27-49) Advances in the nature of science research: Concepts and methodologies, New York: Springer Science and Business Media.[PDF]

Grotzer, T.A., Duhaylongsod, L. & Tutwiler, M.S. (2011, April). Developing explicit understanding of probabilistic causation: Patterns and variation in young children’s reasoning. American Educational Research Association (AERA) Conference, New Orleans, LA, April 10, 2011.

Grotzer, T., Powell, M., Carr, E. & Cooke, C. (2011, April). Enhancing pedagogical content knowledge: Supporting teachers’ efforts to teach underlying causal structure in density. American Educational Research Association (AERA) Conference, New Orleans, LA, April 11, 2011.

Metcalf, S.J., Tutwiler, M.S. Kamarainen, A., Grotzer, T.A. & Dede, C. (2011, April). Learning complex causality in ecosystems via a multi-user virtual environment. American Educational Research Association (AERA) Conference, New Orleans, LA, April 8, 2011.

Metcalf, S.J., Kamarainen, A., Grotzer, T.A. & Dede, C. (2011, April).Ecosystem science learning via multi-user virtual environments. American Educational Research Association (AERA) Conference, New Orleans, LA, April 9, 2011.

Grotzer, T.A., Tutwiler, M.S., Dede, C. Kamarainen, A., & Metcalf, S. (2011, April). Helping students learn more expert framing of complex causal dynamics in ecosystems using EcoMUVE. Presented at the National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Conference, Orlando, FL. (April 4, 2011).

Metcalf, S.J., Kamarainen, A., Grotzer, T.A. & Dede, C. (2011, March). EcoMUVE: Advancing ecosystems science education via situated collaborative learning in multi-user virtual environments.  The Cyberlearning Tools for STEM Education (CyTSE) Conference San Francisco, CA, (March 8, 2011).

Metcalf, S., Dede, C., Grotzer, T., & Kamarainen, A. (2011, March). EcoMUVE: Exploring ecosystems and complex causal patterns in immersive virtual worlds. National Science Teachers Association Conference, San Francisco, CA, March 12,

Arsenault, T., Grotzer, T., & Powell, M (2011, March). Teaching causal complexity in science: A professional development website for teachers.  National Science Teachers Association Conference, San Francisco, CA, March 12, 2011.

Grotzer, T.A., Basca, B., & Donis, K. (2011). Causal patterns in ecosystems: Lessons to infuse into ecosystems units: Second Edition. Cambridge, MA: President and Fellows of Harvard College. [PDF]

Metcalf, S.J., Kamarainen, A., M.S. Tutwiler, Grotzer, T.A. & Dede, C. J. (2011). Ecosystem science learning via multi-user virtual environments. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 3 (1), 86-90.

Grotzer, T.A. (2010). Reasoning about causal complexity in science and beyond. Cambridge, MA: President and Fellows of Harvard College.

Grotzer, T.A. (2010, August). Conceptual challenges in climate change education: Reasoning across time scales. Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA (August 2, 2010).

Kamarainen, A., Metcalf, S., Dede, C. & Grotzer, T.A. (2010). EcoMUVE: Promoting ecosystems science learning via multi-user virtual assessments. Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA (August 3, 2010).

Metcalf, S., Dede, C., Grotzer, T., Kamarainen, A. (2010, May). EcoMUVE: Design of Virtual Environments to Address Science Learning Goals. American Educational Research Association, Denver, Co. May 3, 2010.

Liu, D. & Grotzer, T.A. (2010, March). Teaching 21st Century Science. National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Conference, Philadelphia, PA.

Callan, E., Grotzer, T., Kagan, J., Nisbett, R.E., Perkins, D.N., & Shulman, L.S. (2009). Education and a civil society: Teaching evidence-based decision making. Cambridge, MA: American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Wong, A., Morris, L., Jasti, C., Liu, D, & Grotzer, T.A. (2009). Nature of scientific thinking: Lessons designed to develop understanding of the nature of science and modeling.  Cambridge, MA: President and Fellows of Harvard College.

Honey, R., & Grotzer, T.A. (2009, April).  Cultural Diversity in the Classroom: Salish/Kootenai Students’ Perceptions of Ecosystem Relationships.  Poster presented at the National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Annual International Conference, Orange Grove, CA, April 18, 2009.

Grotzer, T.A. (2009, April). Addressing the challenges in understanding ecosystems: Why getting kids outside may not be enough. National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Conference, Orange Grove, CA, April 18, 2009.

Grotzer, T.A., Dede, C., Metcalfe, S., & Clarke, J. (2009, April). Addressing the challenges in understanding ecosystems: Why getting kids outside may not be enough. National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Conference, Orange Grove, CA, April 18, 2009.

Liu, Y. & Grotzer, T.A. (2009). Looking forward: Teaching the nature of the science of today and tomorrow. In I.M. Saleh & M.S. Khine (Eds.) Fostering scientific habits of mind: Pedagogical knowledge and best practices in science education. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Grotzer, T.A (2009). Learning to reason about evidence and causal explanations: Promising directions in education. In A. Noble (Ed.) K-16 Education and Evidence- Based Policy, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Cambridge, MA. [Link]

Grotzer, T., & Honey, R. (2008, August). Tacit Assumptions that Limit Understanding of Ecosystems, Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting, Milwaukee, WI. (August, 4, 2008).

Heffner-Wong, A., Grotzer, T.A., & Morris, L. (2008, March).  The Nature of Scientific Thinking: Assessing How Students Respond to Lessons Designed to Develop Understanding of the Nature of Science and Modeling.  Paper presented at the National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Annual International Conference, Baltimore, MD.

Heffner-Wong, A., Morris, L., & Grotzer, T.A. (2008, March). The Nature of Scientific Thinking: Lessons on Scientists' Thinking and on Modeling.  Presentation given at the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) National Conference, Boston, MA.

Grotzer, T.A., & Lincoln, R. (2007). Educating for "intelligent environmental action" in an age of global warming, in S. Moser & L. Dilling (Eds.) Creating a Climate for Change: Communicating Climate Change and Facilitating Social Change. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. [PDF]

Zuckerman O., Grotzer, T.A., & Leahy, K. (2005). FlowBlocks as a conceptual bridge between understanding the structure and behavior of a complex causal system. Proceedings of the International Conference of the Learning Sciences, Bloomington, Indiana.[PDF]

Perkins, D.N., & Grotzer, T.A. (2005). Dimensions of causal understanding: The role of complex causal models in students' understanding of science. Studies in Science Education, 41, 117-166.[PDF]

Grotzer, T.A., Houghton, C.A., Basca, B., Mittlefehldt, S., Lincoln, R., & MacGillivray, D. (2005). Causal patterns in density: Lessons to infuse into air pressure units. Cambridge, MA: Project Zero, GSE.

DeVito, B., & Grotzer, T.A. (2005, April). Characterizing Discourse in Two Science Classrooms by the Cognitive Processes Demonstrated by Students and Teachers. Paper presented at the National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Conference, Dallas, TX.

Grotzer, T.A. (2005, April). Transferring Structural Knowledge about the Nature of Causality to Isomorphic and Non-Isomorphic Topics. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association (AERA) Conference, Montreal, Quebec.

Grotzer, T.A. (2004, October). Putting everyday science within reach: Addressing patterns of thinking that limit science learning. Principal Leadership,16-21.[PDF]

Grotzer, T.A., & Sudbury, M. (2004). Causal patterns in simple circuits. President and Fellows of Harvard College for Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, MA.

Basca, B.B., & Grotzer, T.A. (2003). Causal patterns in air pressure-related phenomena. President and Fellows of Harvard College for Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, MA.

Grotzer, T.A. (2003). Learning to understand the forms of causality implicit in scientific explanations. Studies in Science Education. 39, 1-74.

Grotzer, T.A., & Basca, B.B. (2003). Helping students to grasp the underlying causal structures when learning about ecosystems: How does it impact understanding? Journal of Biological Education, 38,(1)16-29.[PDF]

Grotzer, T.A. (2003, March). Transferring structural knowledge about the nature of causality: An empirical test of three levels of transfer. Paper presented at the National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Conference, Philadelphia, PA.

Mittlefehldt, S., & Grotzer, T.A. (2003, March). Using metacognition to facilitate the transfer of causal models in learning density and pressure. Paper presented at the National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Conference, Philadelphia, PA.

Ritscher, R., Lincoln, R., & Grotzer, T.A. (2003, March). Understanding density and pressure: How students' meaning-making impacts their transfer of causal models. Paper presented at the National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Conference, Philadelphia, PA.

Grotzer, T.A. (2002). Causal patterns in ecosystems. Cambridge, MA: Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education.

Grotzer, T.A. (2002). Expanding our vision for educational technology: Procedural, conceptual, and structural knowledge. Educational Technology, 42(2) 52-59. [PDF]

Basca, B.B., & Grotzer, T.A. (2001, April). Focusing on the nature of causality in a unit on pressure: How does it affect students understanding? Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle, WA.

Bell, B., Carroll, R., & Grotzer, T.A. (2000, April). How causal models can help or hinder an understanding of force and motion concepts. Paper presented at the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Conference, Orlando.

Bell-Basca, B., Grotzer, T.A., Donis, K., & Shaw, S. (2000, April). Using domino and relational causality to analyze ecosystems: Realizing what goes around comes around. Paper presented at the National Association of Research in science Teaching, New Orleans, LA.

Donis, K., & Grotzer, T.A. (2000, April). Teaching about domino and cyclic causality to help students understand ecosystems. Paper presented at the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Conference, Orlando.

Edgar, M., & Grotzer, T.A. (2000, April). Causal dimensions that create difficulty in understanding evolution. Paper presented at the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Conference, New Orleans, LA.

Grotzer, T.A. (2000, April). How conceptual leaps in understanding the nature of causality can limit learning: An example from electrical circuits. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.

 Grotzer, T.A., & Perkins, D.N. (2000, April). A taxonomy of causal models: The conceptual leaps between models and students’ reflections on them. Paper presented at the annual conference of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, New Orleans, LA.

Grotzer, T.A., & Sudbury, M. (2000, April). Moving beyond underlying linear causal models of electrical circuits. Paper presented at the annual conference of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, New Orleans, LA.

Houghton, C., Record, K., Bell, B., & Grotzer, T.A. (2000, April). Conceptualizing density with a relational systemic model. Paper presented at the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Conference, New Orleans, LA.

Perkins, D.N., & Grotzer, T.A. (2000, April). Models and moves: Focusing on dimensions of causal complexity to achieve deeper scientific understanding. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.

Sudbury, M., Grotzer, T.A., & Bell, B. (2000, April). Helping students learn about electricity by examining their causal stories. Paper presented at the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Conference, Orlando.

Grotzer, T.A., & Bell, B.B. (1999). Negotiating the funnel: Guiding students toward understanding elusive generative concepts. In L. Hetland & S. Veenema (Eds.), The Project Zero Classroom: Views on Understanding. Cambridge, MA: Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education.